As mentioned above, genetics are thought to play a major role in your susceptibility to acne. However, using the best acne products and taking good care of your skin can help you prevent worsening acne and scars later in life. Check out these other known acne causes and aggravators and see how to prevent acne by cutting some of these out of your life:
The exact cause of rosacea is still unknown. The basic process seems to involve dilation of the small blood vessels of the face. Currently, health researchers believe that rosacea patients have a genetically mediated reduction in the ability to dampen facial inflammation that is incited by environmental factors such as sunburn, demodicosis (Demodex folliculorum in the hair follicles), flushing, and certain medications. Rosacea tends to affect the "blush" areas of the face and is more common in people who flush easily. Additionally, a variety of triggers is known to cause rosacea to flare. Emotional factors (stress, fear, anxiety, embarrassment, etc.) may trigger blushing and aggravate rosacea. Changes in the weather, like strong winds, or a change in the humidity can cause a flare-up. Sun exposure and sun-damaged skin is associated with rosacea. Exercise, alcohol consumption, smoking, emotional upsets, and spicy food are other well-known triggers that may aggravate rosacea. Many patients may also notice flares around the holidays, particularly Christmas and New Year's holidays.
Another potential skin saboteur is sugar, because it raises your insulin level. More and more evidence shows that insulin may boost those oil-triggering male hormones, Dr. Schultz explains. Stick to low-glycemic foods—ones that have complex carbs like whole grains, which break down slower in the body and cause less of an insulin spike. Your health will be better for it, too.
Potentially the easiest and cheapest option, "Clay masks help draw out impurities such as dirt and oil at the surface level of the skin which helps with acne breakouts. It will help to dry up the acne," says Dr. Bank. You can usually find a large tube (meant for your entire face) at the drugstore, and using it as a spot treatment will make it last forever. Just look for a mask with kaolin or bentonite clay as the primary ingredient.
Millions of teens and adults alike have had some form of acne at some point in their lives. It is a very common occurrence, and each type of acne that exists affects a different cross-section of people. However, what is important in every single case is finding a reliable acne treatment so symptoms go away quickly and without all that much hassle or expense.
I couldn't just let the worst breakout ever live on without a visit to the dermatologist, so I went to BeautyRx founder Dr. Neal Schultz. He gave me this incredible "Z Stick" spot treatment that contains mild cortisone (the same substance derms use to inject pimples to make them die down in 24 to 48 hours), and Clindamycin, an antibiotic. I applied this every morning and evening to all my spots and it acted like an extra layer of armor against further inflammation. Sadly, it's prescription-only and/or only available through Dr. Schultz's practice in New York—but he's working on making one for consumers.
You may have been told that what you eat affects your skin and that it can be the cause of pimples and outbreaks, but the debate about diet playing a role in acne frequency still rages on. Many dermatologists will vehemently dismiss the claims that food and acne are linked, as so much of the research surrounding this aspect of skin care has been inconclusive. Studies either yielded weak results, or were flawed with too few subjects or lack of control groups.
It starts out as a powder (a blend of raw cacao, bamboo charcoal, soil nutrients, and spices), only releasing its potent healing elements when mixed with water. The resulting mousse heals blemishes, fights inflammation, encourages circulation, and visibly tightens pores pretty much instantly. Use Lindstrom’s facial treatment bowl and brush to mix the paste.
"Other good over-the-counter options are benzoyl peroxide-containing agents," says Dr. Engelman. "I like La Roche-Posay Effaclar Duo. Benzoyl peroxide is anti-microbial, attacking the bacteria that is associated with acne. The La Roche Posay product also contains Lipohydroxy acid (LHA), which serves as an exfoliator to smooth roughness and even out skin texture."
So if popping pimples doesn't cause scarring, what does? Long-lasting scars typically turn up after a recurring bout with cystic acne. Cystic acne is a breakout that burrows deep into the skin. These red, painful nodules occur when clogged pores are filled with pus and bacteria, which causes inflammation. Cystic breakouts are often tied to an internal fluctuation of hormones like testosterone (that's why they're common during puberty, monthly menstruation, and perimenopause). "If there is a cyst in the skin, it's going to cause a scar the longer it sits there because pus or bacteria deeper inside the pores cause surrounding inflammation," says Dr. Karolak. And as a result, the inflammation affects the collagen production as well as the fat stores under the skin, creating a visible scar on the surface.
For women who break out mainly around their menstrual cycle, some birth control pills can help. Research shows that these pills can clear acne by slowing down overactive oil glands in the skin. Sometimes, birth control pills are used along with a drug called spironolactone to treat acne in adult females. This medication lowers levels of the hormone androgen in the body. Androgen stimulates the skin's oil glands. Side effects of this drug include irregular menstruation, breast tenderness, headache and fatigue. Spironolactone is not appropriate therapy for all patients.
Avoid touching or rubbing your face, since that can make acne worse. Try to keep your cell phone from touching your face, too. Use earbuds instead of having the phone against your skin. Also, don't lean your face on your hands, which may carry oils and germs that can irritate blemishes. Sweat can also make acne worse. Sweaty after exercise? Wash up.
Acne scar treatment: Energy-based skin resurfacing with a laser, radiofrequency, or an ultrasound device can help treat boxcar scars, according to Nada Elbuluk, MD, an assistant professor at the Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology at New York University Langone Medical Center in New York City. “They all work by creating new collagen beneath the surface of the skin.” A series of treatments is likely needed based on the extent of scarring, she says. Chemical peels can also help but to a lesser extent. With either procedure, using a retinoid to increase cell turnover and further boost collagen can help improve results, Dr. Elbuluk adds.
If you look in the mirror and see a pimple, don't touch it, squeeze it, or pick at it. This might be hard to do — it can be pretty tempting to try to get rid of a pimple. But when you play around with pimples, you can cause even more inflammation by popping them or opening them up. Plus, the oil from your hands can't help! More important, though, picking at pimples can leave tiny, permanent scars on your face.
You’re a typical hormonal-acne patient if, well past puberty, you’re breaking out around your period, usually in the jawline area, says Anolik. A consistent routine is key—as is enduring a waiting period of two to three months for said routine to work, he continues: “Even powerful prescription treatments can take a few months to really clear things up, and that’s our biggest challenge. People who get frustrated and don’t stick to their treatments get stuck in a cycle of trying and quitting too early, and feeling like nothing works.”
Drink plenty of water and follow a balanced diet. Although eating healthily and staying hydrated isn't going to magically make acne scars disappear, it will allow your body to perform at its best and help skin to heal itself. Water will flush toxins from the body and keep skin looking plump and firm, so you should aim to drink 5 to 8 glasses a day. Vitamins such as A, C and E will also help to feed the skin and keep it hydrated.