Our skin contains millions of small sebaceous glands underneath the surface. These glands excrete an oil, called sebum, that helps to keep our skin smooth and supple. This oil is released via pores, which are small holes on the surface of the skin, which is also where hairs grow out of. When the body produces a lot of sebum, the skin can feel oily and these pores can become clog. It is when these pores become clogged that germs and bacteria can thrive and grow. The result – pimples.
2. You're OD'ing on spot treatments. Overusing topical salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxide, or sulphur over-the-counter treatments can dry out your skin, causing it to produce more oil and possibly blemishes. Those ingredients can actually make the appearance of your pimples look worse, since the active ingredients can slightly burn the top layer of your skin if used too often, making the pimple appear even redder and harder to conceal than if you had just left it alone. (Tip via Samantha Wright, a licensed aesthetician and Skinovator at the Dangene Institute.)
Facials can be an effective way to get rid of non-inflammatory or comedonal acne (whiteheads and blackheads). Comedones occur when pores get clogged with oil and dead skin cells. Facial exfoliation takes off the top layer of skin, which unclogs pores and helps oil flow naturally through the follicles, thus avoiding future breakouts. Extractions remove the existing comedones, which both helps your appearance and also lessens the likelihood developing a pimple (which occurs when a comedone becomes inflamed).
Isotretinoin: Accutane was the original brand name; there are now several generic versions in common use, including Sotret, Claravis, and Amnesteem. Isotretinoin is an excellent treatment for severe, scarring, persistent acne and has been used on millions of patients since it was introduced in Europe in 1971 and in the U.S. in 1982. It should be used for people with severe acne, chiefly of the cystic variety, that has been unresponsive to conventional therapies like those listed above. If taken in sufficient dosage, it should eliminate the need to continue the use of prescription drugs in most patients. The drug has many potential serious side effects and requires a number of unique controls before it is prescribed. This means that isotretinoin is not a good choice for people whose acne is not that severe but who are frustrated and want "something that will knock acne out once and for all." In order to use the drug, the prescribing physician, the patient, and the supplying pharmacy must be enrolled in the online "iPLEDGE PROGRAM." Used properly, isotretinoin is safe and produces few side effects beyond dry lips and occasional muscle aches. This drug is prescribed for five to six months at a dosage that has a high likelihood of preventing the return of acne. Fasting blood tests are monitored monthly to check liver function and the level of triglycerides, substances related to cholesterol, which often rise a bit during treatment but rarely to the point at which treatment has to be modified or stopped.
One study that gained a lot of traction in the acne vs. food debate appeared in the Archives of Dermatology in 2002.  This research was based on the study of 115 people in Eastern Paraguay and 1,200 individuals in Papua New Guinea. The individuals in this study lived on a diet of self-raised lean meats and fresh plant foods, and scientists were astonished to record not a singular case of acne in either population. Based on this evidence, researchers concluded that the standard Western diet composed largely of starches and refined sugars might be a culprit between the high rates of acne in the Western world.
New to glycolic acid peels? Cane + Austin recommends starting here with their introductory glycolic daily facial treatment. These easy-to-use, one-step daily treatment peels contain 10 percent pharmaceutical grade glycolic acid to reveal a healthy-looking glow. Great for all skin types including dry and sensitive, they reduce the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles, and age spots, even pigmentation, and restore skin’s luminosity and vitality.
However, if you have a scar, you’re dealing with permanent skin damage that needs treatment in order to disappear. An acne scar changes the texture of the skin. If acne has left indentations, or raised spots, the damage has occurred at a deeper level in the skin. This “cobblestoning” effect indicates scarring that needs more than a surface-level treatment.
People who escaped their teen years almost pimple-free may develop persistent adult-onset acne as they get older. Despite the normal increase in androgen levels during puberty, some doctors believe that flare-ups of acne have less to do with androgen levels than with how a person's skin responds to an increase in sebum production or to the bacteria that causes acne. The bacteria Propionibacterium acnes occurs naturally in healthy hair follicles. If too many of them accumulate in plugged follicles, they may secrete enzymes that break down sebum and cause inflammation. Some people are simply more sensitive than others to this reaction. Sebum levels that might cause a pimple or two in one person may result in widespread outbreaks -- or even acute cystic acne -- in another person.
Inflammatory Acne: Inflammatory acne is red bumps and pustules, not whiteheads, blackheads and comedones. It does not necessarily start as them, either. It arises on its own. Whiteheads, blackheads or comedones that become inflamed can be painful and unsightly. Persistent inflammatory acne may require treatment by a physician or dermatologist, in addition to over-the-counter acne remedies.
Isotretinoin (previously known as Accutane) is the most effective form of acne therapy and the only one that can actually result in a cure for your acne. After finishing a course 80% of people never see acne again. It works so well because it unclogs pores, kills bacteria, reduces oil production and reduces inflammation. It is taken as a daily pill. Isotretinoin has numerous rare and potential side effects that has made it a controversial choice, but for patients with severe acne there is often no other option. Patients taking isotretinoin must also be on highly effective birth control as the drug can cause birth defects. Isotretinoin can only be taken under close medical supervision.
New to glycolic acid peels? Cane + Austin recommends starting here with their introductory glycolic daily facial treatment. These easy-to-use, one-step daily treatment peels contain 10 percent pharmaceutical grade glycolic acid to reveal a healthy-looking glow. Great for all skin types including dry and sensitive, they reduce the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles, and age spots, even pigmentation, and restore skin’s luminosity and vitality.
Consider cosmetic surgery. As a last resort, consult with a medical professional about surgery for large, deep lesions or scars. In this procedure, a doctor will use a punch excision to cut out the scar and replace it with stitching or a skin graft. Smaller lesions require only stitching, while large lesions may require a skin graft from another part of your body.[15]
There are a number of mild chemical peels available over the counter, but acne scar removal requires a stronger peel typically administered by a doctor or dermatologist. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) peels are slightly stronger than alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) peels and may be used for acne scar treatment. The strongest type, phenol peels, may cause significant swelling and require up to two weeks of recovery time at home. Neither are recommended for people with active severe acne.
There are several low-level light devices designed as at-home acne remedies on the market — but do they really work? Some, like the Zeno electronic "zit-zapper" are FDA-approved as acne remedies, but reviews with these products are typically mixed. Even the best acne treatment won't work for everyone, as the severity of the acne, types of acne and quality of the device are all factors. Ask your dermatologist for a recommendation if you're considering purchasing an at-home light device to treat your acne.
There are many who recommend that those with acne-prone skin use non-comedogenic ingredients, that is, cosmetics designed to avoid clogging the pores. It’s best to use products that are labeled hypoallergenic and oil free, and some find that makeup products with salicylic acid help the skin remain clear. It’s also important to avoid applying layer upon layer of makeup.
Exercise regularly. Exercising does a number of things to help reduce your acne. It releases endorphins which lower stress levels and therefore reduce oil-production and also makes you sweat which cleans out dead skin cells. Try exercising on a daily basis for a minimum of thirty minutes to help reduce your acne not only on your face, but also on your chest, shoulders, and back; which is where the term "bacne" comes from.
If you're experience hormonal acne every single month—and it's don't-want-to-leave-the-house bad—it's worth visiting your doctor to rule out polycystic ovarian syndrome, a hormonal imbalance that can lead to infertility, anxiety, and depression. Birth control medications, which help regulate hormone levels, are effective in preventing these kinds of breakouts, says Dr. Hale, who's also a fan of DIY remedies when it comes to how to get rid of acne. Home remedies like crushed aspirin application are among her top treatment choices. "You're basically applying pure salicylic acid to it," she explains.
Comedo (whiteheads or blackheads) or papules. The comedo is the basic acne lesion, which is a plugged pore. If the plugged pore stays under the skin, it's called a closed comedo and forms a white bump or whitehead. Blackheads are comedos that open up and appear blackish on the surface of the skin. This black color is not due to dirt, but because the air reacts with the excess oil.
Common acne, known medically as Acne Vulgaris, is generally caused by hormonal changes in the body, and its onset usually can be found in teenage years when puberty rears its head. Acne is directly attributed to the rise of androgen hormone levels. The production of these hormones rise when a child begins puberty, and is the reason much acne is prevalent in adolescence. As androgen levels rise, the oil glands sitting directly underneath the skin enlarge and produce increased levels of oil, also known as sebum. When pores are filled with excessive sebum, it can cause surrounding skin cells’ walls to rupture and create a breeding ground of P. acnes bacteria. As the sebum attempts to push out of the pore, it can attach to this infectious bacteria and dead skin cells, causing a blockage that begins the formation of a pimple. According to Medical News Today, dermatologists purport that almost three quarters of 11 to 30-year-olds will deal with acne at some point, but acne breakouts can continue on into adulthood, and have been observed in patients in their fifties.
However, if you have a scar, you’re dealing with permanent skin damage that needs treatment in order to disappear. An acne scar changes the texture of the skin. If acne has left indentations, or raised spots, the damage has occurred at a deeper level in the skin. This “cobblestoning” effect indicates scarring that needs more than a surface-level treatment.
If saving babysitting money for a year still won't make a dent in the funds you need to get a fancy laser treatment that will blast away acne scars, don't be discouraged. Thanks to the geniuses behind drugstore brands like La Roche-Posay, there's a new class of products that feature smart technology and better-than-ever ingredients to help treat dark marks and acne scars — at an affordable price. “La-Roche Posay’s Pigmentclar line is unique in the way it combines exfoliating lipohydroxy acid (LHA), phe-resorcinol, and ferulic acid, which are both strong brightening ingredients, all together to form a topical product that’s seriously effective," says dermatologist Dr. Mona Gohara.

Rosacea is a common skin problem often called "adult acne." Faired skinned and menopausal women are more likely to have rosacea. Rosacea also seems to run in families. It causes redness in the center parts of the face and pimples. Blood vessels under the skin of the face may enlarge and show through the skin as small red lines. The skin may be swollen and feel warm.
While you’re waiting on all those active ingredients to kick in, Tzu says it’s best to use “makeup or foundation with a green tint to neutralize the redness.” She likes the Clinique Redness Solutions line, designed to color-correct red marks or spots. While this foundation includes SPF, it’s still best to layer over a dedicated sunscreen for maximum protection.
Therefore, it is very important that you wear sunscreen everyday, with an SPF of 30.Of note, after SPF 30, there are decreasing marginal returns in UVB protection. The % of UVB protection as a function of SPF Value is a log graph and plateaus after SPF 30. Therefore, there is not much difference in protection between SPF 40 and 50. Sunscreens with an SPF 100 are banned in some countries.

According to dermatologist Dr. Whitney Bowe, some scars are thick, raised hypertrophic scars that stick out above the skin; others are keloid, which are scars that have over-healed, and manifest as dense, rubbery skin tissue. Then, there are atrophic scars that appear as depressions in the skin — they're the most challenging to treat. The three main categories of atrophic scars are:
First thing's first: prevention. "Getting on a good skincare regimen, avoiding picking, popping, or traumatizing the skin, and protecting it with SPF so it does not darken are important ways to avoid acne scarring," dermatologist Annie Chiu advises. For day-to-day coverage, try this SPF 45 option from Dr. Jart. It's a four-in-one primer, moisturizer, sunscreen, and treatment serum that evens out skin tone from within and offers mild coverage.
Exfoliating cleansers and masks: A variety of mild scrubs, exfoliants, and masks can be used. These products may contain salicylic acid in a concentration that makes it a very mild peeling agent. These products remove the outer layer of the skin and thus open pores. Products containing glycolic or alpha hydroxy acids are also gentle skin exfoliants.
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