You may have heard the age old question, "does makeup cause acne?". While wearing makeup can exacerbate acne flare ups, it is not necessarily the case. Some support the fact that that cosmetics can fill up your pores, worsen pimples, and prevent your skin from “breathing”. The truth is, whether or not makeup worsens acne is highly individualized. While excessive use of foundations, concealers, and other cosmetics can work their way into and block up your pores, making sure to clean your face of such products before working out or going to bed lessens the likelihood of makeup blockages.
Unfortunately, subtype 2 rosacea was historically referred to as “acne rosacea,” reflecting the belief that the two conditions were related. Although it is now known that there is no connection between acne and rosacea, the term can still be found in older literature about the disease, as well as in occasional reports today. This has often led to confusion by the public, and rosacea sufferers with bumps and pimples may mistakenly self-diagnose themselves as having acne. The two disorders require different treatment, however, and acne medications may cause rosacea symptoms to get worse.
According to dermatologist Dr. Whitney Bowe, some scars are thick, raised hypertrophic scars that stick out above the skin; others are keloid, which are scars that have over-healed, and manifest as dense, rubbery skin tissue. Then, there are atrophic scars that appear as depressions in the skin — they're the most challenging to treat. The three main categories of atrophic scars are:
Rhinophyma is a consequence of non-treated and sometimes retreatment-resistant rosacea due to granulomatous infiltration of the skin within the nose. If severe, the nose will be severely enlarged. It is characterized by enlarged pores and thickened skin. Papules on the nose and related rosacea in the surrounding areas of the face are often observed. It is more common in men. 
Common knowledge would dictate that most people are aware that certain foods, and in turn, the nutrients they contain, can be beneficial for specific body parts. For example, healthy bones require calcium and vitamin D; our hearts function better when we eat certain seafood that is rich in omega-3 fatty acids. However, this does beg the question as to what food promotes healthy skin?
Isotretinoin has a high risk of inducing birth defects if taken by pregnant women. Women of childbearing age who take isotretinoin need two negative pregnancy tests (blood or urine) before starting the drug, monthly tests while they take it, and another after they are done. Those who are sexually active must use two forms of contraception, one of which is usually the oral contraceptive pill. Isotretinoin leaves the body completely when treatment is done; women must be sure to avoid pregnancy for one month after therapy is stopped. There is, however, no risk to childbearing after that time.
According to dermatologist Dr. Whitney Bowe, some scars are thick, raised hypertrophic scars that stick out above the skin; others are keloid, which are scars that have over-healed, and manifest as dense, rubbery skin tissue. Then, there are atrophic scars that appear as depressions in the skin — they're the most challenging to treat. The three main categories of atrophic scars are:
Comedo (whiteheads or blackheads) or papules. The comedo is the basic acne lesion, which is a plugged pore. If the plugged pore stays under the skin, it's called a closed comedo and forms a white bump or whitehead. Blackheads are comedos that open up and appear blackish on the surface of the skin. This black color is not due to dirt, but because the air reacts with the excess oil.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a bacteria that causes chronic inflammation (gastritis) of the inner lining of the stomach, and also is the most common cause of ulcers worldwide. About 50% of people in the world carries or is infected with H. pylori. Common symptoms of H. pylori infection are occasional abdominal discomfort, bloating, belching or burping, and nausea and vomiting. H. pylori infection is difficult to erdicate, and treatment is with two or more antibiotics.
Laser resurfacing. This procedure can be done in the doctor's or dermatologist's office. The laser removes the damaged top layer of skin and tightens the middle layer, leaving skin smoother. It can take anywhere from a few minutes to an hour. The doctor will try to lessen any pain by first numbing the skin with local anesthesia. It usually takes between 3 and 10 days for the skin to heal completely.
Not that you needed an excuse to pop open a bottle of bubbly, but if a pimple should threaten to ruin your evening out, reach for the Champagne. Its tartaric acid (found in grapes) is said to not only ease acne, but also to contain anti-aging properties. So, soak up a cotton pad with your champs, and apply it to the infected area (it won’t hurt to rub it on your whole face, either). High-class problems? We’ll drink to that!
The inflammation caused by your breakout can cause more than just the pimple you see on the surface, it can also cause damage below the skin. "The inflammatory response produces a loss in collagen and the overlying skin will collapse and leave a depression," Howard Sobel, M.D., a NYC dermatologist and founder of DDF Skincare, tells SELF. To get rid of these tiny pockmarks, Dr. Karolak relies on a TCA Cross chemical peel. TCA stands for trichloroacetic acid. "We use a little applicator and go into the hole with chemicals to cause a burn. That causes the wall of that ice pick to heal itself and close in on itself," explains Dr. Karolak.
If saving babysitting money for a year still won't make a dent in the funds you need to get a fancy laser treatment that will blast away acne scars, don't be discouraged. Thanks to the geniuses behind drugstore brands like La Roche-Posay, there's a new class of products that feature smart technology and better-than-ever ingredients to help treat dark marks and acne scars — at an affordable price. “La-Roche Posay’s Pigmentclar line is unique in the way it combines exfoliating lipohydroxy acid (LHA), phe-resorcinol, and ferulic acid, which are both strong brightening ingredients, all together to form a topical product that’s seriously effective," says dermatologist Dr. Mona Gohara.

There are breakouts, and then there are breakouts so bad that make me, a grown woman, literally hide under a blanket. The latter happened over a month ago and, as much as I'm here for the growing skin positivity movement, I have to admit my confidence hit an all-time low. I cancelled plans. I stared unhealthily often at a mirror, examining the damage: a colony of seemingly multiplying cystic zits invaded my chin and jawline like never before. How did I get here?
Acne scar treatment: The best acne scar treatment for hyperpigmentation is with 4 percent hydroquinone and sunblock, according to Dr. Imber. Hydroquinone is a topical bleaching agent that you apply directly to a dark spot. Sunblock is essential, since sun exposure can worsen hyperpigmentation. Other potential treatments include glycolic acid products, which remove the upper-most layer of the skin and the dark marks, and retinoids to increase skin cell turnover, Dr. Elbuluk says. These can be used with the bleaching agent hydroquinone as well. “We can also try glycolic acid chemical peels in the office at higher doses than you could do at home,” she says. “If peels don’t do the trick, lasers are usually the next thing we would try to improve hyperpigmentation.” Check out these amazing skin transformations that will make you run to your dermatologist.
Laser resurfacing. This procedure can be done in the doctor's or dermatologist's office. The laser removes the damaged top layer of skin and tightens the middle layer, leaving skin smoother. It can take anywhere from a few minutes to an hour. The doctor will try to lessen any pain by first numbing the skin with local anesthesia. It usually takes between 3 and 10 days for the skin to heal completely.

How big of a scar you'll be left with after a blemish (if any at all) depends on the depth of the breakout, Schlessinger says. "As our pores become engorged with oil and form a blemish, the pore may swell and collapse the follicle wall," he says. "The depth of the resulting lesion determines the severity of the scar. Shallow lesions usually heal quickly and leave little-to-no scarring, while deeper lesions spread to nearby tissue, causing a more pronounced scar."
When answering the question "why does stress cause acne?", it is important to note that stress is not the definitive catalyst for breakouts, but rather a factor that worsens a previously existing condition. When stress levels are consistently heightened, adrenal glands signal the production of the male hormone androgen, which signals sebaceous oil glands to secrete more sebum. As this excess oil builds up, acne is more likely to develop. As women produce a larger percentage of androgens in the adrenal gland than men, stress more commonly has an affectation on acne frequency in women.
Use oil-free makeup. If you wear makeup, you may be stuck in a vicious cycle of covering up acne while simultaneously causing it with your cover-up usage. Find acne-fighting oil-free mineral makeup to help prevent worsening your acne while simply trying to hide it. Power foundations are also recommended. When possible, avoid wearing make-up at all though as it clogs your pores over the course of the day.

Mild rosacea may not necessarily require treatment if the individual is not bothered by the condition. Situations that are more resistant may require a combination approach, using several of the treatments at the same time. A combination approach may include prescription sulfa facial wash twice a day, applying an antibacterial cream morning and night, and taking an oral antibiotic for flares. A series of in-office laser, intense pulsed light, or photodynamic therapies may also be used in combination with the home regimen. It is advisable to seek a physician's care for the proper evaluation and treatment of rosacea.
It's best to consult a primary care physician or dermatologist if an individual is unable to adequately control his or her acne. The goal of treatment should be the prevention of scarring (not a flawless complexion) so that after the condition spontaneously resolves there is no lasting sign of the affliction. Here are some of the options available:
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